Lenalidomide – API

Lenalidomide is a light yellow powder with the chemical name 3-(4-amino-1-oxoisoindolin-2-yl)piperidine-2,6-dione which is freely soluble in N-methylpyrrolidone and soluble in N,N-dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide. Lenalidomide is used to treat various types of cancers. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. It is also used to treat anemia in patients with certain blood/bone marrow disorders (myelodysplastic syndromes-MDS). The structure of lenalidomide is showed in figure 1.

Structure of lenalidomide
Fig. 1 Structure of lenalidomide

Application and mechanism of lenalidomide
Lenalidomide can be used in the treatment of various of cancers and anemia in patients with certain blood/bone marrow disorders. More information is as follow:

Multiple myeloma (MM)
Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory drug, is the first oral medication that was developed for treatment of multiple myeloma. It is used in the newly diagnosed, maintenance therapy, and relapsed and/or refractory settings.

The proposed mechanisms of action of lenalidomide in multiple myeloma include immune modulation (A); interference with tumor microenvironment interactions (B); and direct antitumor effects (C). (A) Immunomodulation by lenalidomide includes T cell co-stimulation, suppression of Tregs, increased production of Th1 cytokines, and activation of NK and NKT cells. (B) Lenalidomide mediates disruption of myeloma cell-microenvironment interactions via several mechanisms including antiangiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, antiosteoclastogenic properties, modulation of cytokine production, and downregulation of adhesion molecules. (C) IMiDs also exert direct effects on myeloma cells via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis .
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)
Extensive research led the permission of lenalidomide for MCL patients whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior therapies. Figure 2 shows the types of MCL.

Lenalidomide – API